ICICI's board has denied any wrongdoing, highlighting that the loan was underwritten in accordance with the bank's credit standards and was extended as part of a consortium involving over 20 banks.
The bank has stressed that it has not given any credit to the borrower group outside of the consortium. Nevertheless, the presence of the bank's CEO on this credit committee - and the bank's reluctance to support an independent probe – have created doubts over the strength of its corporate governance practices, it said.
The allegations come against a backdrop of high NPLs in the banking sector, some of which have been linked to fraudulent lending.
Fitch said corporate governance at private banks, such as ICICI, is generally stronger than at state-owned banks
due to better-qualified board members and more professional management. Moreover, compensation structures at private banks
are more performance-oriented, while a large and diversified investor base encourages greater management accountability. These assumptions could come under question if the investigations expose misconduct at ICICI.
The investigation could also undermine investor confidence in the bank, with potential implications for funding costs and liquidity in an extreme scenario, although its status as a systemically important bank implies it will benefit from some form of state support.
Meanwhile, there is a potential risk of financial penalties, as well as legal action, if the investigation comes up with findings against the bank.
Fitch will closely monitor developments, and would take appropriate rating action if risks to the banks' reputation and financial profile were to rise considerably.
That said, the banks' rating is underpinned by relatively strong capitalisation and profitability. Core capitalisation was 14.2% in December 2017, among the highest in the sector. Losses on the loan in question would be unlikely to significantly undermine ICICI's financial profile - in particular, its core capitalisation would remain strong even if the loan were completely written off, FiTch added.