Punjab Chief Minister Amrinder Singh, Maharashtra CM Uddhav Thackeray, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath were among those who attended the video conference.
The prime minister has been pitching for involvement of people and local authorities to check the spread of the virus.
In his address to the nation on Thursday, Modi highlighted the scale of coronavirus' impact and noted that there is a view that India has averted the crisis and all is well.
"This mindset is not correct. Complacency in respect of a global pandemic like coronavirus
is not appropriate. It is essential that each and every Indian remains alert and cautious," he said.
Studies of the countries hit by the pandemic have revealed that it exploded after a few days, and the number of people infected by it grew at a very rapid pace, he pointed out.