A number of prisoners have escaped during the attack, said another provincial official, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to speak to the media.
The prison houses about 1,500 inmates, of which several hundred are believed to belong to the Islamic State
group affiliate in Afghanistan.
It wasn't immediately clear if there were specific prisoners housed in the prison that the attack was staged to free.
The attack comes a day after the Afghan intelligence agency said a senior Islamic State group commander was killed by Afghan special forces near Jalalabad.
The Taliban's political spokesman Suhail Shaheen told The Associated Press, his group was not inolved.
We have a cease-fire and are not involved in any of these attacks anywhere in the country, he said.
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