Apart from becoming the youngest Asian Tour winner from India, Madappa is also the first rookie and youngest player to win on the continental Tour this season.
The Tarun Sardesai Academy product takes home a winner's prize purse of $63,000 and earned a one-year winner exemption on the region's premier Tour.
"Last night I thought about a win, the winning putt and so much else, so I was kind of nervous," he said in a release. "Then, to get my first pro win on the Asian Tour is a dream come true. It is yet to sink in."
Argentinean Miguel Carballo, who held a one-shot lead heading into the final round, rode on a birdie-par-eagle finish to sign for a 71, sharing second place with Zimbabwe's Scott Vincent (68), as well as Thailand's Danthai Boonma (70) and Suradit Yongcharoenchai (66).
Home favourites Khalin Joshi, Honey Baisoya and S.S.P. Chawrasia settled for the sixth place on 12-under 272 following respective rounds of 72, 70 and 70.
Khalin, who was second overnight, said: "Nothing worked for me today. I was 4-over after 10 and I tried hard, but it was not to be."
S. Chikkarangappa finished ninth with a total of 11-under 273 after a 72 in the final round. He dropped four shots early and was then trying to play catch up with three birdies on back nine.
Defending champion, Thailand's Poom Saksansin (66) was tied 10th alongside with five others, one of whom was India's Om Prakash Chouhan (70).
Thailand's Pasavee Lertvilai recorded the second ace of the week on the par-three fourth hole after hitting an eight-iron from 180 yards. It was his third hole-in-one recorded in a professional tournament. Pasavee ended his campaign in tied 33rd place on 280 following a 70.
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