A sugar mill locomotive

After the bifurcation of the state, I think there are 28 sugar mills in Bihar. More than half are closed, primarily those belonging to Bihar State Sugar Corporation (BSSC). The BSSC was formed in 1974 to manage, operate and control sick private sector sugar mills and distilleries and subsequently, 15 sugar mills and two distilleries were nationalised. As is often the case, sick private sector continued as sick public sector. In this column, we aren’t concerned with revival/privatisation options for BSSC mills. One of these nationalised units was Darbhanga Sugar Company Limited in Lohat in Madhubani district, established in 1914-15, acquired in 1977 and closed since 1997-98. The Imperial Gazetteer of India tells us, “The famine of 1874 gave a great impetus to the construction of railways, and the district (Darbhanga) is on the whole well off in the matter of communications. Its south-west corner is traversed for 29 miles by the main line of the Bengal and North-Western Railway (BNWR), and also by 25 miles of the new chord-line from Hajipur to Bachwara, which runs parallel to the Ganges embankment from east to west. From Samastipur a line runs to Darbhanga town and there branches off in two directions, the first north-west to Sitamarhi through Kamtaul and Jogiara, and the other due east to Khanwa Ghat on the Kosi.” In other parts of India too, railway construction was sometimes triggered by immediate famine relief concerns and desire to counter famines in the future. 

Illustration by Binay Sinha
This takes us to Lakshmeshwar Singh (1858-98), the then Maharaja of Darbhanga and Tirhut/Tirhoot State Railway (TSR). Lakshmeshwar Singh seems to have had a role to play in ensuring that the railway line from Darbhanga to Bajitpur was built in 1874, apart from he himself engaging in public works, especially after the Bihar famine of 1873-74. Who built that railway line between Darbhanga and Bajitpur? It couldn’t have been BNWR, which was formed in 1882. It was built by TSR. Samastipur-Darbhanga was also built by TSR. These, and other meter gauge lines, were worked and taken over by BNWR later. Unlike other railways, not much has been written about TSR. From a book written by Simon Darvill (Industrial Railways and Locomotives of India and South Asia), it seems that the Lohat sugar mill was opened by TSR in 1914. By then, the Maharaja of Darbhanga was Kameshwar Singh (1907-64) and in 1917, an agreement was signed between BNWR and TSR for a meter gauge siding between Pandual station and the sugar mill.  

Why a sugar mill in Lohat, for which the nearest railway station is Pandual? I recommend a 1908 book by Minden Wilson, titled, History of Behar Indigo Factories. “I have not recorded Pundoul, Nurharh, Joynuggur, or Kumtoul. All these factories belong to the Maharajah of Durbhunga…That cane will grow in Behar there is no doubt, for I find, in documents of 1793 and after, nearly all the old indigo factories in Tirhoot are spoken, of as being sugar and saltpetre, as well aa indigo manufactories... Planters who generally grew a few bighas of cane as fodder for their bullocks knew from this experience that indigo grew well in lands where cane had been sown and vice versa, and they therefore did not see why cane should not be made a success, and after some study the conclusions come to were that cane to be a paying crop must be grown in new lands.” There was that large indigo factory in Pandual. Lakshmeshwar Singh had virtually banned cultivation of indigo in the Tirhut region. Therefore, why not set up a sugar mill? Because of the link with Pandual station, railway lines were laid inside the Lohat sugar mill too. If there were railway lines, there had to be locomotives and these steam locomotives hauled sugar and some indigo.