So, based on this critique, the code was revised, but it has made things worse rather than better. The new NBC of 2016 is so convoluted that instead of a number you have a formula. The formula defines what the internal temperature range, based on the outside mean temperature, should be in the building. It has also increased its typologies of buildings — naturally ventilated; mixed mode (where cooling or heating happens in certain areas or times); and air conditioned-only buildings. Then it has two categories of air conditioned buildings. It is meant to confuse and confound and not to use.
I asked a colleague to calculate what the inside temperature defined by this code would be when the average temperature outside was 40°C? It turns out that in non-AC conditions, comfort temperatures are up to 34.4°C, while in AC conditions they are as low as 25°C. The logic is rather strange — and definitely discriminatory. This so-called adaptive comfort model, which was derived from the Ahmedabad-based CEPT University study, states that air conditioning is a factor of what human beings are used to in their lives.
The NBC says: “People living year-round in air-conditioned spaces are likely to develop high expectations for homogeneity and cool temperatures, and may become quite critical if thermal conditions deviate from the center of the comfort zone they have come to expect. In contrast, people who live or work in naturally ventilated buildings are able to control their immediate interior spaces, get accustomed to variable indoor thermal conditions that reflect local patterns of daily and seasonal climate changes.”
In other words, the rich, who are used to air conditioning, would be comfortable only with lower temperatures as against the poor, who should be comfortable with higher temperatures because their bodies are adapted to this. This is the Indian form of socialism — it does not set the comfort conditions that all must aspire to and ensure that all (includes and especially) the rich are required to ‘adapt’ to higher temperatures because of energy constraints. No, instead our government decides to ensure that the rich must use more energy because that is in their comfort zone. It is no wonder that Amitabh Bachchan stereotypes this image of what it means to be rich and deserving. Class system has a new definition in the Indian code of buildings.
In contrast, Japan has mandated that all office buildings and commercial establishments cannot set their air conditioning below 28°C — this does not distinguish between the rich and the poor. This means that when temperatures are high outside and people are not in their “expected comfort zone”, they need to dress appropriately to get more comfortable. It does not mean that you allow the rich to guzzle more energy because that is what they are used to.
But let’s leave aside the question of this appalling system of setting temperature for comfort for the moment. What does comfort really mean? There are four variables in thermal comfort — temperature, humidity, heat radiation, and air movement. Then of course, there are two critical human variables — clothing and an individual’s metabolism rate. In other words, you greatly increase comfort by designing spaces so that they reduce exposure to direct sunlight — radiant heat — and increasing ventilation. This means adopting the best practices of traditional (and poor peoples) buildings that were built on principles of passive architecture.
This requires you to protect your building through shading devices — the common Indian or canopy or balcony. It also means planting more trees on this summer side and better insulation.
It also means that we humans need ventilation to be comfortable. So, much more important than just setting the low temperature control is our lowly fan — also seen as the symbol of the poor’s comfort. Ironically, it is your fan that will make your comfort go up and not just your most expensive and most efficient and brand new air conditioner. Let’s get really cool. Not just the mind-conditioned way.
The writer is at the Centre for Science and Environment