Shah also thanked Prime Minister Narendra Modi for bestowing the responsibility of the sensitive ministry.
"Today, I have taken the charge as India's Home Minister. I am thankful to Prime Minister Narendra Modi for reposing faith in me," he said.
Shah was received at the North Block office of the home ministry by Union Home Secretary Rajiv Gauba, Intelligence Bureau Chief Rajiv Jain and other senior officials.
Two newly appointed ministers of state for home - G K Reddy and Nityananda Rai - also took charge Saturday.
Shah took charge two days after he was sworn-in following a landslide victory of the BJP-led NDA.
A home ministry official said Shah is expected to prioritise the NDA government's policy of zero tolerance towards terrorism and checking illegal immigration.
The new home minister's immediate task would be handling the situation in Jammu and Kashmir, which is under the President's rule, and situation which may arise after the publication of the final National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam.
The BJP-led NDA has received a landslide mandate in the recently-concluded Lok Sabha elections with the saffron party winning 303 of the 542 seats that went to polls.
Shah was the key architect of the BJP's victory as the party president.
Kerala Governor P Sathasivam and Maharashtra Governor C Vidyasagar Rao were among the first who made courtesy calls on the home minister.
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