Google's Duplex uses AI to mimic humans, but only sometimes

On a recent afternoon at the Lao Thai Kitchen restaurant, the telephone rang and the caller ID read “Google Assistant.” Jimmy Tran, a waiter, answered the phone. The caller was a man with an Irish accent hoping to book a dinner reservation for two on the weekend. This was no ordinary booking. It came through Google Duplex, a free service that uses artificial intelligence to call restaurants and — mimicking a human voice — speak on our behalf to book a table. The feature, which had a limited release about a year ago, recently became available to a larger number of Android devices and iPhones.

The voice of the Irish man sounded eerily human. When asked whether he was a robot, the caller immediately replied, “No, I’m not a robot,” and laughed.

“It sounded very real,” Tran said in an interview after hanging up the call with Google. “It was perfectly human.”

We tested Duplex for several days, calling more than a dozen restaurants, and our tests showed a heavy reliance on humans. Among our four successful bookings with Duplex, three were done by people. But when calls were actually placed by Google’s artificially intelligent assistant, the bot sounded very much like a real person and was even able to respond to nuanced questions.

In other words, Duplex, which Google first showed off last year as a technological marvel using AI, is still largely operated by humans. While AI services like Google’s are meant to help us, their part-machine, part-human approach could contribute to a mounting problem: the struggle to decipher the real from the fake, from bogus reviews and online disinformation to bots posing as people.

Here is the result of our experiment.

Google’s AI is eerily human, when it works

To test Google Duplex, we used a pair of Google’s Pixel smartphones, which include the company’s virtual assistant by default. At the bottom of the screen, we pressed a button to summon the Google assistant and then said, “Book me a dinner reservation.”

Google’s assistant then loaded a list of nearby restaurants. For the restaurants that took reservations only over the phone, Google offered to step in and place the call with Duplex.

We tried using Duplex more than a dozen times. Several restaurants, like Henry’s Hunan in San Francisco and China Village in Albany, California, rejected our requests for a table of two to four people because they took reservations only for tables of 10 people or more.

Eventually, we secured four reservations in Albany: two separate reservations at Nomad Tibetan restaurant, one booking at Lao Thai Kitchen and one reservation at Bowl’d Korean Rice Bar. We witnessed or reviewed each of the phone calls, and the restaurants were made aware that we were testing Duplex before they picked up the phone.

Only the reservation at Bowl’d, which we witnessed at the restaurant, was made entirely with Google’s AI service. The bot introduced itself as Google’s automated booking service, followed by a request to book a table for Tuesday the 21st. The call demonstrated the ability of Google’s AI operator to insert pauses and “ums” to mimic a human — in effect making the interaction feel more lifelike and less scripted. 

At several moments during the call, the restaurant’s manager, Jin Park, acted confused and asked the caller to state the party size and reservation date. The bot patiently answered the questions again and again. Then, Park threw a curveball: “Are there any kids?”

The Google bot was quick to improvise: “I’m actually booking on behalf of a client, so I’m not too sure,” he said.

“Everything was perfect,” Park said in an interview after conversing with the Google bot. “It’s like a real person talking.”

Park added that he was especially impressed with how the bot handled his question about whether there were children in the party.

But our experience with the other bookings was less impressive as they were all handled by humans. Google said that Duplex was sometimes relying on people in part because it was taking a conservative approach to be respectful toward businesses. Google will have a human involved in the call in a number of situations, like if the company is unsure of whether the business takes reservations, or if the user of the assistant might be a spammer.

Valerie Nygaard, a product manager working on Duplex, said that for our reservation at the Tibetan restaurant, the company might have had a person place the call because it lacked signals indicating the restaurant took reservations.

The next day, however, we tested Duplex at the same Tibetan restaurant, and it again used a human caller despite our earlier, successful booking. So Duplex doesn’t appear to learn quickly.
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